The reasons of a modern science give, maybe,

the opportunity to make the conclusion,

that the religion became acceptable

for sensible scientific mind, since 1927. "

/A. S. Eddington /.


His Divine Majesty - Quantum of Light.


" Who could think, that the simple law

( constancy of speed of quantum of light in vacuum)

leads honesty conceiving physicist

to huge logic difficulties? "


/About special and general theory of a relativity/

( Popular statement)


Quantum of light is a privileged particle.
It is necessary to allocate study of Quantum of light

 in the special area.




All particles have concrete mass of rest.

Only mass of rest of quantum of light is equal to zero.

All particles can move with any speed less than light one.

Only quantum of light moves in Vacuum with constant speed с=1.

This characteristic of quantum of light distinguishes it from all other

particles of a nature.

Any other particles can not reach speed с=1.

It is unattainable for them. The nature has put interdictions before these material particles, aspiring to this speed c=1.

There are following interdictions:

1. Their mass will increase indefinitely.

2. Their own time will become infinite.

3. The form in a direction of movement will be indefinitely reduced

(volume will disappear).

And only quantum of light, counter to these interdictions, goes with  

speed с=1 forbidden for others.

And it is material.


But is it the particle in that sense, in which we speak about other material particles?

Why does it have "non-material" features?

And is the quantum of light material or not? That is the question.

And in what we have our doubts. 



Mass of rest of quantum of light is equal to zero.

The zero size is an absence of size, i.e. the particle has no mass.

But mass is a measure of quantity of a matter.

Does it means that quantum of light does not have matter?

Does Quantum of light mean to be a non-material particle?

Whether is it possible to believe in it?

Whether is it possible to reconcile to a similar sight?

Unless is it possible to consider anything non-material in science,

when the experiences speak, that quantum of light is material?

To avoid this contradiction, then began to approve, that if mass of rest of quantum of light is equal to zero - then, such quantums of light are not in nature.

And what quantums of light are there? Only in movement.

Differently, quantum of light is an eternally moving particle. All particles can stay in a condition of rest, but only for quantum of light is forbidden to stay in a condition of rest. But the first statement is scientific, and the second is free.

And consequently it is doubtful.

On the strange fact, that quantum of light has mass equal to zero it is possible and it is necessary to look from the other point of view.

Let's put to our consciousness such questions:

1. What geometrical and physical parameters of quantum of light in rest can be?

How can the non-material particle turn into material?

And if it is, so how?

At movement in Vacuum with constant speed с=1 quantum of light is a indefinitely flat figure.

From all flat figures most symmetric and optimal is an circle.

 Hence, in movement с=1, quantum of light is a circle flattened into ellipse.

Its internal impulse will be equal to zero: h=0 in a condition of rest.

And at movement with speed с=1, its internal impulse is equal to unit:

h=1 (Planck impulse )

At such movement the properties of quantum of light

 as particles (corpuscular)are shown.





Quantum of light has also wave properties.

How the particle can have these wave properties?

How the particle can create waves?


SRT is constructed on two postulates:

The first postulate is constructed on a principle of a relativity Galilei (Galilei transformation ). In other words, in the first postulate the objects with speeds which is less speeds of quantum of light c < 1 are considered.

 These speeds are relative: v=s/t

The second postulate is constructed on the fact that speed of quantum of light in Vacuum quality is maximal and constant and does not depend on a source of radiation. This is an absolute  speed с=1.

These two postulates are incommensurable between themselves.

The reasons : any other particles, except for quantum of light, can not reach its maximal speed с=1. Therefore to decide a task, comparing thus incommensurable sizes (с=1 and c < 1), belonging to different particles - it is not correct. It is a task from a cycle: " What will be, if the whale will attack the elephant? "

 It is impossible to think out hypotheses for overlapping incompatible.

Certainly, it is possible to compare speed of quantum of light to speed of movement of a rocket, plane, of a steam locomotive mathematical and to receive exact mathematical accounts. Therefore Einstein could create SRT.

 But at the same time this fact was by the reason of paradoxes.

These mathematical accounts (quantitative connections) have no attitude to real processes in a Nature.

How to decide this riddle of an incommensurability?

In order not to fly in abstract mathematical clouds, two postulates of  SRT are necessary to change on one question:

" What will take place, if the maximal ,constant and rectilinear speed of quantum of light will change ? "

All essence of SRT is in this question.

All essence of SRT is in the description of the behaviour of quantum of light

All essence of SRT is in the description of effects connected with activity of quantum of light.

SRT does not consider " a beam of light, light flow, light of a beam of a lantern ".
 SRT is a theory about quantum of light.

How particularly quantum of light can change the speed?

In what concrete sense SRT?

At movement with speed с=1, the form of quantum of light is circle (ellipse).

Quantum of light can not, as the automobile, gradually reduce the speed. In Vacuum it is always с=1. Therefore, it is necessary to assume, that quantum of light makes any other movement. Other movement can be only rotation of quantum of light around of its own diameter. Quantum of light, as a result of rotation, turns to the electrical charged particle, known in physics under the name "electron". And in 1925 Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck have opened, that electron, really, has such ability.

Thus, SRT describes conditions at which quantum of light can actively work as "electron" (Lorents transformations).

The Lorents transformations are called by a impulse of Goudsmit - Uhlenbeck.



* * *


It is possible to consider the behaviour of quantum of light and from other point of view.

SRT is continuation of development of electrodynamics of Maxwell.
The Maxwell,s equations have no any relation to the movement of electron.

 They describe distribution of electromagnetic waves,
but not the movement of a particle-electron.

In the Maxwell theory, the electron is considered as a local

particle  "in the rest".
It means, that this particle does not go rectilinearly, and rotates on a place around of its diameter (has the form of a sphere).

Then, in the end of the ХIХ the beginning of the ХХ century many scientists (Einstein, Lorents, Fitzgerald, Poincare, Abraham) were interested in a question:
What will be if electron, creating an electrical field, begins to move rectilinearly?
All of them came to a conclusion that there will be radical changes with the electron. These changes are described with Lorents transformations.

That is, when originally rotating electron (sphere) begins to move rectilinearly, during its movement it gradually will change the geometrical form. And having reached constant speed с=1, its form will be a circle.

 In such condition it is called " quantum of light ".

"Electron" is an actively working quantum of light.

Minkowski said that to introduce solid electron in the theory of Maxwell is the same as to go to the concert tucking ears with absorbent cotton.
And SRT is continuation of development of Maxwell electrodynamics.


* * *

The change of a condition of quantum of light in "electron"

 and in a return change occurs under the formula:


The sense of this mutual transformation carries the name:

" The Law of preservation and transformation of energy"






In a condition of rest :

а) mass of quantum of light is equal to zero: m=0,

b) the impulse of quantum of light is equal to zero: h=0

с) the form is a circle C/D=p

d) energy Е0=М0с2


At the movement with speed с=1

а) the impulse of quantum of light is equal to unit h=1(impulse of Planck).

b) mass is equal to energy of rectilinear movement Е = m =

с) its form is ellipse.

At the movement with speed c > 1 (it is not rectilinear motion),
rotary motion around of its own diameter, is its frequency of rotation.
The frequency of rotation is connected to speed more than c=1.

а) impulse of quantum of light is ħ =2p/h (impulse Goudsmit - Uhlenbeck)

b) quantum of light works as electron e =±√ħcα

with energy E = ħ w

c) form - rotating sphere creating a waves in environmental space.


In such the explanation dualism of a particle disappears .


* * *

Quantum of light can be in three conditions:

in rest, in rectilinear movement and in rotary movement.

It is an independent particle and itself makes a decision in what condition to be.

It means, that quantum of light sharply qualitatively differs from all other material particles.

This special non-material particle should attribute the non-material,

spiritual characteristic.

In 1924, Broglie supposed that all particles have dualistic nature.

 That is why the scientists claim now that proton also possesses dualism,

 both corpuscular and wave qualities. Wave qualities of photon were discovered at passing proton through crystalline grating. Arisen at this diffraction picture was accepted by the scientists as the fact that witnesses about the possession of wave qualities of proton.

 But imagine, dear reader, that a stone with the weight of 60 kg was thrown into the lake. Then I jump into the lake. The scientist, sitting on the bank of this lake, studies the waves and comes to conclusion:  waves are identical, so these two bodies creating waves are identical too.

 But you understand, dear reader, that there is difference between the author of these lines and a stone. And crystalline grating is that lake in which both electron and proton are falling. And then the scientists study the formed diffraction picture and tries to explain the inner structure of the particles. Isn't it funny?

The basic question


The basic question was well formulated by Newton:

" All difficulty of physics, as it will be visible, is, that to distinguish forces of a nature

on that phenomena of movement, and then on these forces to explain other phenomena ".

And what is the reason of movement?

What is sense of the character of movement and its changes?

In classical physics the reason of movement is called by external influence.

And in quantum?

Originally quantum of light is in Vacuum in a condition of rest.

1.         The vacuum does not render any influence on him.

2.         Other quantums do not cooperate with him.

3.         We do not believe in representation about the god, which has given him a push,.

What is the reason of movement occurring as though itself?

4. Involuntarily the first openers had to enter into a science the term

" internal impulse of a particle ".

It's not me who has entered this term. I would only like to introduce to myself as, evidently, this internal pulse occurs.

It has appeared, that the ability to make an internal impulse independently, is connected to representation about an alive particle, about a conscious particle, about a spiritual particle. It causes, softly speaking, much surprise, mistrust and discontent of many people.

 It is their problem.

There is not any other interpretation.

With the claims address to the one who has invented the term

" an internal impulse of a particle ".


* * *


Let's assume, that any bird sits on a deck of a driven steamship.

At any moment of time it, having waved wings, has departed somewhere away.

We understand, that this bird is an independent, free essence and speed of her flight does not depend on speed of movement of a steamship.

Precisely flight of quantum of light is also is independently free.

Quantum of light also flies irrespectively of  reference system .

But we understand, that the free flight of a bird is connected to its own internal energy, with its own internal impulse.

And the reason of free, independent ( from a source of radiation) flight of quantum of light we do not understand. Isn't it a strange situation?

And the reason of this independent flight can be only one - quantum of light, as well as the bird, has an own internal impulse.

Everyone agree, that the elementary particles have their own internal impulse,

but nobody yet considered it evidently.

From here and all paradoxical treatment of modern physics start.

So long as we do not realize, what the own internal pulse of an elementary particle,

 until then we shall be surprised to our or other strange thinking and

misunderstanding each other and unknown a nature of Life.





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